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Coordinating conjunctions can join words, phrases, or clauses.
When a coordinating conjunction joins two words or phrases, no comma is needed.
Kip and Shia played basketball.
Fartun looked for her phone but could not find it.
The professor walked down the hall and into her office.
When a coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses, a comma is needed.
Fartun looked for her phone, but she could not find it.
The professor walked down the hall, and she walked into her office.
Further explanation for this rule is provided in Questions and Answers.
Coordinating conjunctions can be remembered with the acronym fanboys.