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Dependent clauses consist of a subject and a verb. However, unlike independent clauses, they cannot stand alone as a sentence because they do not have a complete though. In most situations, dependent clauses accompany independent clauses to create complex sentences.
Dependent clauses can begin with a subordinating conjunction.
Because James did not study, he failed the test.
We went out for pizza after my sister won her game.
Although Katrina was only five minutes late, she missed the quiz.
If Mohamed finds someone to cover his shift, he will go to the banquet.
We will drive to Chicago unless the weather is bad
Dependent clauses can also begin with a relative pronoun.
The woman who will give tomorrow's lecture has written three books.
The house that sits near the river is in danger of flooding.
Leo decided to take Professor Chang's English class, which his brother took last year.
I play tomorrow against a boy whom I defeated last year.
The man whose daughter babysits my children is moving to Texas.
A third type of dependent clause is a noun clause.
Noun clauses function as subjects, objects, or
appositives in a sentence. Noun clauses begin
with that or a wh word. In a noun clause, that
or the wh word is not the subject of the clause.
Shukri hopes that she will graduate in the spring.
Nobody understands why the judge decided as
How the acrobat performed her trick is a mystery.
These examples are not complex sentences. Instead of accompanying the independent clauses, the noun clauses are part of the independent clauses.