Grammargrounds grammar education is a free, comprehensive site with instruction, videos, quizzes, and more. The English teacher looking for tools, the student looking for some extra help, or the new English speaker hoping to master the language will find what he or she is looking for here.
GrammarGrounds Grammar Education
Grammar WELL- GroUNDED
Parallel structure occurs when a pair or list of
actions or items in a sentence has the same
a list or pair of nouns is parallel.
--Muna invited friends, relatives, co-workers, and neighbors to her party.
a list or pair of gerunds is parallel.
--The class requires daily reading and writing.
a list or pair of verbs is parallel.
--For exercise, my mom lifts weights, swims, and jogs.
a list or pair of adjectives is parallel.
--The candidate is charismatic, intelligent, and honest.
a list or pair of adverbs is parallel.
--Working quickly but carefully, the surgeon operated on her patient.
a list or pair of prepositional phrases is parallel.
--The professor walked down the hallway and into his office.
a list or pair of gerund phrases is parallel.
--Manfred enjoys watching movies and attending concerts.
a list or pair of infinitive phrases is parallel.
--After LaFonda graduates, she plans to get a job and to find her own apartment.
a list or pair of present participial phrases is parallel.
--Hanging out with his friends and playing video games all night, Brody never did his
a list or pair of past participial phrases is parallel.
--Defeated easily and embarrassed by the defeat, Molly walked off the court without
talking to anyone.
a list or pair of clauses is parallel.
--I hope that Teddy apologizes to Loni and Loni accepts Teddy's apology.
When creating parallel structure, repeated word can be skipped in subsequent items.
parallel --On his trip, DeMarcus traveled through China, through Vietnam, and through
parallel --To improve my grade, I need to meet with my professor during his office hours,
see a tutor, and study more.
not parallel--To improve my grade, I need to meet with my professor during his office hours,
to see a tutor, and study more.
parallel --Mai plays soccer, plays basketball, and plays softball.
parallel --Mai plays soccer, basketball, and softball.
not parallel--Mai plays soccer, basketball, and plays softball.
Parallel structure is a concern when correlative conjunctions are used.
--Sammy studies not only in the library but also at a local coffee shop.
--So that the kids are not left alone tomorrow, either I will leave work early, or
my wife will go to her meeting late.
--Neither impressed by the performance nor satisfied by the meal, Michael and
Ezra decided they would not return to the dinner theater.
--Both running on the deck and diving into the pool are prohibited.
--Whether hanging out with friends, attending class, studying in the library, or
watching a movie alone, Tammy dresses in the latest fashion.
Thesis statements commonly require parallel structure.