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Relative pronouns introduces relative clauses.  A relative pronoun relates to the word that that the relative clause modifies or describes.

Relative pronouns include whowhomwhosewhich and that​.

who acts as the subject of a relative clause that modifies a person. --The woman who won the race qualified for the finals.

whom acts as an object of a relative clause that modifies a person.

--The student whom Kendra sits next to got a perfect score on the test.

​whose indicates possession in a relative clause.

--My neighbor whose dog disappeared put up posters throughout the neighborhood.  

that acts as the subject or object of an essential relative clause that modifies a thing.

--The storm that hit last night damaged many homes in the neighborhood.

--The team that we beat won the championship last year. 

which acts as the subject or object of a non-essential relative clause that modifies a thing.

--Hurricane Katrina, which devastated New Orleans in 2005, displaced thousands of people.