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Relative pronouns introduces relative clauses. A relative pronoun relates to the word that that the relative clause modifies or describes.
Relative pronouns include who, whom, whose, which and that.
who acts as the subject of a relative clause that modifies a person. --The woman who won the race qualified for the finals.
whom acts as an object of a relative clause that modifies a person.
--The student whom Kendra sits next to got a perfect score on the test.
whose indicates possession in a relative clause.
--My neighbor whose dog disappeared put up posters throughout the neighborhood.
that acts as the subject or object of an essential relative clause that modifies a thing.
--The storm that hit last night damaged many homes in the neighborhood.
--The team that we beat won the championship last year.
which acts as the subject or object of a non-essential relative clause that modifies a thing.
--Hurricane Katrina, which devastated New Orleans in 2005, displaced thousands of people.