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A sentence fragments is not a sentence because it cannot stand by itself. Every complete sentence needs an independent clause; a sentence fragment lacks an independent clause.
A phrase alone is a fragment.
--studying all night
--confused by the assignment
--to succeed in life
--a charismatic leader
A phrase can be added to an independent clause in a variety of ways to create a simple sentence.
--With determination, Lucia swam the English Channel.
--A charismatic leader, William energized his team.
A dependent clause alone is a fragment.
--because Mya sprained her ankle
--although the night was cold
--if you eat your vegetables
--when we finish the project
A dependent clause can be added to an independent clause to create a complex sentence.
--Because Mya sprained her ankle, she needed crutches.
--You can watch a moviewhen we finish the project.