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Bicycling to his house,Jeff got a flat tire.

     Here, the independent clause is modified by a

        present participial phrase.    

                               .

Released in 1982, Thriller has sold a hundred million copies.

     Here, the independent clause is modified by a

     Past Participial Phrases.

                            .

    

To pass the class, Teng must write a ten page research paper.

     Here, the independent clause is modified by an

      infinitive phrase.

                      .

Her leg broken, Lucy could not play soccer.

     Here, the independent clause is modified by an

     absolute phrase.

                      .


Click here to see the above examples diagrammed.

From campus, Jeff bikes to his apartmentin Maplewood.

     Here, the independent clause  is modified by three

        prepositional phrases.                          .      .

While simple sentences consist of only one clause, they can be modified by any number of phrases.

Simple Sentences

Simple sentences consist of one clause only.  Since a simple sentence has only one clause, the clause must be an independent clause.

         Bethany did her homework.

         He ran.

         Jeff bikes.